IPC component spacing guidelines ensure that components and circuits are spaced far enough apart to minimize physical overlap and electrical interference.
The spacing of drill holes is important because their function can be affected by component spacing as well as the material used for the PCB itself.
IPC component spacing guidelines influence circuit design because they include many specific requirements for conductors.
Close-up of a PCB that follows correct IPC spacing guidelines.
The IPC is an international electronics organization that defines standards for fabricating PCBs. Their standards are extensive—thousands of pages long—but the best practices they create ensure that PCBs of all types are robust and reliable. Many types of IPC standards are split among smaller sub-standards, including IPC component spacing guidelines.
The main sub-standard defining the guidelines is IPC-2221A, which was last updated in 2003. Though the current standard for component spacing guidelines is nearly 18 years old as of this article, its long life is a testament to its usefulness.
What Is the Purpose of IPC Component Spacing Guidelines?
The IPC component spacing guidelines exist for two reasons: to prevent component overlap that could cause physical damage and to prevent electrical interference that could cause performance problems. Of the two, physical overlaps are a simpler problem to correct. CAD software can catch most instances, and many designers have enough knowledge to identify when components can’t fit in a space without computerized help.
The IPC component spacing guidelines are a third check on these potential physical problems. As long as designers follow the spacing guidelines, there should not be physical overlaps of components except in special circumstances that require additional engineering and development.
Component spacing guidelines also manage negative space—the places where components are not present. Negative space on a PCB can be just as important as the regions where components exist, and this space is particularly important when preventing electrical interference. If conductive traces or circuits are too close together, unintentional connections may form between them as electrons jump between circuits. These unexpected connections reduce the strength of signals traveling through some regions of the PCB and can increase the amount of power flowing through other areas. Reductions in power can cause shorts or failures, while surges in power can cause physical damage or overloads.
How Are Drill Holes Related to IPC Component Spacing Guidelines?
Drill holes are important regions of negative space in PCBs, and their presence can also impact the orientation and layout of physical components. When PCBs are covered with semiconductive coatings, the inside surfaces of drill holes are often coated with the rest of the board. Designers must be aware that the coating inside of drill holes could make a significant difference in how well a PCB can function or fit together with other components.
The IPC component spacing guidelines take this into account and recommend ratios of drill hole width to board thickness. Smaller ratios make drill holes easier to clean, simplify their manufacture, and facilitate uniform coating of their interiors. Regardless of their ratios, drill holes should also have strict tolerances defined to ensure consistent sizing and proper fit.
The IPC component spacing guidelines also specify that drill holes should be slightly larger in external PCB layers than in internal PCB layers. This is necessary because finished drill holes require smoothing and processing to prevent problems in later manufacturing steps. The external and internal hole sizes must be within specified IPC tolerances, which are precise fractions of a millimeter. Drill holes also must be a specific distance away from conductive traces or other physical components, and this distance varies in external versus internal layers of a PCB.
Unlike many other types of components, drill holes must take into account differences between PCB layers. The number of layers in a PCB can also affect the manufacture and robustness of drill holes. If a board is too thin, the hole could be a weak point at risk of breakage; if the board is too thick, it could be difficult to create a clean drill hole within the required tolerances.
A PCB that follows IPC component spacing guidelines with integrated circuits.
How Do IPC Component Spacing Guidelines Impact Circuit Design?
IPC component spacing guidelines help designers create circuits that minimize interference while still making the best possible use of space. There is no minimum or maximum size for a circuit defined in the standard, so the guidelines are applicable to PCBs of any size. Instead, the guidelines recommend that designers decide upon the proper size for circuits and traces based on the amount of current they should carry, as well as their thermal tolerance.
As with drill holes, specifications for external and internal layers of a PCB differ. Circuits that reside solely on the external layers of a PCB can be larger than circuits which intersect with the internal layers. Designers can calculate how far apart circuits should be, regardless of PCB size, by using constants defined in the standards.
Many sizes of PCB boards are standardized, ranging from a few millimeters long to a third of a meter. In all PCBs, conductor leads should be as short as possible. Leads can be theoretically placed on a PCB at any angle and in any orientation, but unusual angles can make these leads more difficult to model computationally. The IPC recommends that leads be placed parallel to each other, perpendicular to each other, or at 45-degree angles to each other. It is common for a single PCB to have leads running in different directions, but leads should never overlap. Overlapping leads would be a violation of component spacing guidelines and could cause a lot of interference.
A complex PCB that follows IPC spacing guidelines.
IPC component spacing guidelines are a vital part of a robust design process that creates reliable and effective PCBs. Using robust PCB design and analysis software, such as Allegro PCB Editor by Cadence, provides all the necessary tools to make the PCB design process as simple and reliable as possible.
If you’re looking to learn more about how Cadence has the solution for you, talk to us and our team of experts.